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When I first started to program QuickTunes 2 BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, , the number 1 feature I wanted to add was global hotkeys. I Googled it, I asked in chat rooms, I asked in forums. Canada, mexico, india, I never got a solid answer that worked for Panther or Tiger. So I decided to go about and use the various sources online and dig through the Carbon docs. So I now want to explain to you in a simplified version how to make multiple global hotkeys for your program.

What’s a Global Hotkey?

A global hotkey is a key combination that can be pressed whenever a user wants, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Your app does not have to be the foreground app; it just needs to be running. When the keys are pressed, online buy Yerba Diet without a prescription, your application will receive an event, and then you can carry out a method. I use this in QuickTunes to allow global access to iTunes play/pause commands. San Diego, California. Dallas, Texas. San Antonio, Texas, Apple uses this in the command-space hotkey to invoke Spotlight on the new Mac OS X Tiger. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Other examples would be command-shift 4, for taking screenshots (Mac OS 10.3 and 10.4).

What’s on the Agenda?

  • Register our hotkey
  • Register a second hotkey
  • Make them customizable
Register our First Hotkey

Let me first set out the scene. I assume you are working on a already designed Cocoa application. I also assume that you are using Objective-C. This is important because we are using C code in our hotkeys section, Boston, Massachusetts. Charlotte, Carolina. Objective-C is a subset of C so C code will still work, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. To start off, import the carbon framework by selecting your project and then going to the menu item "Project." From there click Add to Project and select /System/Library/Frameworks/Carbon.framework. Click Add. Kjøpe Yerba Diet online, bestill Yerba Diet online, Open up the .m file you wish to add the hotkeys to. I recommend putting it into your apps main controller class, but you can choose which class works best. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, We need to set up the code that will make our hotkeys. Move to the awakeFromNib: method in your class. If it does not already exist, purchase Yerba Diet online, create it. Now place this code in their.

//Register the HotkeysEventHotKeyRef gMyHotKeyRef;EventHotKeyID gMyHotKeyID;EventTypeSpec eventType;eventType.eventClass=kEventClassKeyboard;eventType.eventKind=kEventHotKeyPressed;

This just creates some variables that will store some basic info about our hotkeys. EventTypeSpec is a struct and we’ve set its eventClass to the kEventClassKeyboard and its eventKind variable to kEventHotKeyPressed, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Yerba Diet 100mg, There are different options, but if you are making a global hotkey, use these.

Next we want to install a handler so that our application can accept these events.

InstallApplicationEventHandler(&MyHotKeyHandler, acheter en ligne Yerba Diet, acheter Yerba Diet bon marché,1,&eventType,NULL, Online buying Yerba Diet, NULL);

This is a very basic method. The first parameter will be a reference to a method somewhere in your class. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, We will write that later. Leave the next parameter as a 1. The next parameter is our eventType variable we have already declared. The next parameter I have put to NULL, where can i buy cheapest Yerba Diet online, but you can pass any object in there. The object will then be available to the method that is called when the hotkey is pressed. This is very useful, and I will explain how to use it properly in the later sections, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. And finally, Indianapolis, Indiana, San Francisco, California, pass in NULL to the last parameter.

Now lets create an actual hotkey and get it working. Type this code next.

gMyHotKeyID.signature='htk1';gMyHotKeyID.id=1;

The first line is a string for the name of the hotkey. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Name it whatever you like. This is for easy access and recognition, Yerba Diet pharmacy. The second line gives the hotkey an id. Give all your hotkeys different ids. I simply use 1, Yerba Diet 1000mg, 2000mg, 2,3 etc.

Our next section will actually register the hotkey itself, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION.

RegisterEventHotKey(49, cmdKey+optionKey, gMyHotKeyID, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Las Vegas, Nevada,GetApplicationEventTarget(), 0, &gMyHotKeyRef);

This is the meat of the program, Farmacia Yerba Diet baratos, Yerba Diet online kaufen, so I will detail how it all works. RegisterEventHotKey will do all the work to create the actual hotkey itself, and yes you can create multiple ones, but more on that later. The first parameter I passed, Austin, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, is 49. Now this is going to be different based on what your hotkey will actually be. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, 49 represents the space bar. The advantage of using this format is that although the ASCII value of some keys might change when you switch from English to Spanish, Buy cheap Yerba Diet, the keyboard reference number does not. Now I looked around on the net trying to figure out what keys I could use, but it was very difficult until I found an app called AsyncKeys (The file might be down at that location. I have hosted a copy on my server. This is solely for convenience, buy Yerba Diet no prescription. Get it here), BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Download this program and install it. When it opens just click the keys that you want and it will return the ASCII values as well as the Keyboard Reference Number. You can then take that keyboard ref number and place it in the place of 49 above. Buy Yerba Diet without prescription, The next parameter is for the modifier keys of your hotkeys. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Apple decided to require a hotkey to have at least one modifier key like control or command, in order to prevent key loggers. These C constants represent numbers, but you should still use the constants for future versions of OS X. The possible constants are: cmdKey, shiftKey, Yerba Diet 75mg, optionKey, and controlKey. If you wish to have multiple modifiers like my example just add the constants together. Baltimore, Maryland. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, The third parameter is the hotkey name and number we just defined. All other parameters should stay as they are listed above, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION.

The final thing we need is our method that will be called once you press the hotkey. Here is the code for that:

OSStatus MyHotKeyHandler(EventHandlerCallRef nextHandler,EventRef theEvent,void *userData){//Do something once the key is pressedreturn noErr;}

The above method should be added somewhere in the same class file, Yerba Diet 150mg. It will be executed once your hotkey is pressed. Fill in the code necessary. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Build and run your app, you should be able to press your hotkey and your function will activate whether or not your app is the front most.

Register our Second Hotkey

This section is very easy considering that we already have working hotkeys. Yerba Diet 5mg, To add a second (and as many others as you want) just add a few more line of code. This section should go right after the first RegisterEventHotkey method.

gMyHotKeyID.signature='htk2';gMyHotKeyID.id=2;RegisterEventHotKey(124, cmdKey+optionKey, gMyHotKeyID, Yerba Diet price,GetApplicationEventTarget(), 0, &gMyHotKeyRef);

This is pretty much exactly the same except for 3 things. The hotkey has a different signature, id, and different button (in this case the right arrow key), BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Köpa Yerba Diet online, Osta Yerba Diet online, Jotta Yerba Diet verkossa, The final change will be inside the function we wrote to execute after the key is pressed: MyHotKeyHandler.

OSStatus MyHotKeyHandler(EventHandlerCallRef nextHandler,EventRef theEvent,void *userData){ EventHotKeyID hkCom; GetEventParameter(theEvent,kEventParamDirectObject, 400mg, 450mg,typeEventHotKeyID,NULL,sizeof(hkCom), Where can i buy Yerba Diet online, NULL,&hkCom); int l = hkCom.id;

switch (l) { case 1: //do something break; case 2: //do something break; } return noErr;}

This basically adds a few things. First off, we have one major difficulty. We have multiple hotkeys, comprar en línea Yerba Diet, comprar Yerba Diet baratos, but they are only calling one function. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, This is how we solve it. We create a EventHotKeyID called hkCom. We then call the function GetEventParameter which will help give us details about the specific event that just occurred. Japan, craiglist, ebay, hcl, We then take the id variable from our event, and that means we know which hotkey was pressed. In this case, we have 2 hotkeys with ids of 1 and 2. In the integer variable l, we now have this value, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. We do a simple switch statement and then can execute different code based on which key was pressed, Yerba Diet 50mg. Very easy, except that took along time to figure out. An extra side note. I for one, have methods in other classes I would like to call once these hotkeys have been pressed. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, To solve this, pass in an object at the second to last parameter in InstallApplicationEventHandler. Then one you are in your case statement, you can do: [userData runMethod:somevalue].

Make them customizable

Now we get to the difficult part of the project, allowing the user to choose which hotkeys they want for the global hotkeys. This is how I do it. In our init: method I set some User Defaults.

NSMutableDictionary *userDefaultsValuesDict = [NSMutableDictionarydictionary];[userDefaultsValuesDict setObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:49]forKey:@"hotkeyCodePlay"];[userDefaultsValuesDict setObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:cmdKey+optionKey]forKey:@"hotkeyModifiersPlay"];[userDefaultsValuesDict setObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:124]forKey:@"hotkeyCodeNext"];[userDefaultsValuesDict setObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:cmdKey+optionKey]forKey:@"hotkeyModifiersNext"];

[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] registerDefaults:userDefaultsValuesDict]; //Register the defaults[[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] synchronize]; //And sync them

What this does is create the default values for the two hotkeys: cmd-option space (49) and cmd-option right arrow (124), BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Hopefully you are familiar with user defaults and understand how this all works. Our next goal is to rewrite parts of our code to allow for the user’s choice to be inserted as the keyboard reference number rather than our specific choices. Go to the section where we were calling RegisterEventHotKey. Replace your code with:

gMyHotKeyID.signature='htk1';gMyHotKeyID.id=1;if([[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] integerForKey:@"hotkeyCodePlay"]!=-999) {  RegisterEventHotKey([[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] integerForKey:@"hotkeyCodePlay"], [[NSUserDefaults standardUserDefaults] integerForKey:@"hotkeyModifiersPlay"], gMyHotKeyID, GetApplicationEventTarget(), 0,&gMyHotKeyRef);}

The first two lines are the same as before. BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION, The third line is an if statement that checks to make sure that the user wants us to have a global hotkey function for a specific method. I always give the users a choice as to whether have a hotkey exist. If the user does not, then I set the preferences value to –999. This if just checks to make sure that our user wants this hotkey and then moves into the actual declaration. As you can tell, we’ve added a little more code. This just pulls from NSUserDefaults the values the user has chosen instead of the 49 and 124, BUY Yerba Diet ONLINE NO PRESCRIPTION.

Now you can create a simple preferences box like in QuickTunes that allows your users to pick the hotkeys themselves. Simply link up those values to the NSUserDefaults page and you are done.

Conclusion

I hope this was a very helpful tutorial. I wanted to give enough detail that you can figure out what’s going on for yourself but still not overwhelm you with code. The last part where you make the actual preference box may be overwhelming to some, it actually does take some smart coding to make it work perfectly. I am going to leave that out of this tutorial and post it in an upcoming tutorial so as to not overwhelm anyone with too much content. Please feel free to leave comments about the tutorial on this blog, on digg, or email me here.

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  • Anonymous

    Will the hotkey keep working when playing a game (fullscreen) ?

  • http://printf.dk/ Jesper

    Remember to have #include in your header file.

  • Jerome

    Yeah, this rocks !

    Thanks a lot for this tutorial, it completly fullfilled my needs !

    A simple info to help futur visitors :

    in a c function, even when embedded in an objectif-c class, the self variable is not available. Therefor, you may have to pass it as the 4th parameter to the InstallApplicationEventHandler function, to get it back as userData in you event handler function.

    Global thanks for you work Dustin !

  • http://brok3n.org Chris Forsythe
  • Lora

    Hello, Dustin!

    I’m really enjoy your post about global hot key.

    Thank you very much!

    Your post helps me with my job.

  • Stepan

    Thank you very much! I’ve found all I wanted!

  • Charlie Monroe

    Hey, cool tutorial! Thanks a lot!

    To Jerome:

    You either pass (void*)self as a parameter, or (much simpler) you use notifications. This way all parts of your project can receive the hot key notif.

    Cheers,

    Charlie

  • Justin

    First great write up, EXACTLY what I needed.
    Here’s a question: how to catch/trigger when the button being held down?

  • http://dbachrach.com/blog/2007/07/24/cocoa-is-for-you-indie-developers-taste-the-chocolate/ Cocoa is for You, Indie Developers: Taste the Chocolate » Dustin Bachrach Blog

    [...] their features into it. There are still certain things that can be only done in C. For instance, my tutorial on how to do global hotkeys utilizes a Carbon API. Since we’re using Objective-C, it’s [...]

  • Phil

    Objective-C is a _superset_ of C. ;)

  • http://www.sakadosanpo.net Bryan

    Thank you very much for writing this guide. I’m just starting with Cocoa (old hand with MFC and Motif though…) and I was not happy when I found out that Cocoa did not have global hotkeys. I really didn’t want to learn Carbon at all. Your guide sure saved me a lot of stress and time.

    Thanks again!

  • http://groups.jonzu.com/z_apple_global-hotkeys-trouble-with-sizeof-eventhotkeyref.html Global Hotkeys – Trouble with sizeof EventHotKeyRef : 38636

    [...] have not tried going the pure-Carbon route (e.g., as described here http://dbachrach.com/blog/2005/11/program-global-hotkeys-in-cocoa-easily/ ), as I am hoping to find a workaround that lets me stay with the (in my opinion) simpler Cocoa [...]

  • Shina

    This is a cool tutorial. I am working on a application, where-in cmd+shift+3 and cmd+shift+4 needs to overridden. Please let me know if there is any way to achieve this functionality.

  • Shina

    This is a cool tutorial. I am working on a application, where-in cmd+shift+3 and cmd+shift+4 needs to overridden. Please let me know if there is any way to achieve this functionality.

  • giandrea77

    Thank you very much!!!! You have saved my weekend!!!!!

  • giandrea77

    Thank you very much!!!! You have saved my weekend!!!!!

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  • David J

    Very nice tutorial, even 3 years on!

    Any information about getting Keyboard Reference Numbers though? I can't seem to find anything on them, and the old app (ASyncKey?) is so outdated it wont run on 10.5/10.6 due to it being a Classic.

  • David J

    Very nice tutorial, even 3 years on!

    Any information about getting Keyboard Reference Numbers though? I can't seem to find anything on them, and the old app (ASyncKey?) is so outdated it wont run on 10.5/10.6 due to it being a Classic.

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  • Anonymous Too

    This was an incredibly helpful and clear, both the blog and the comments. Thanks!

    Some comments:

    In Xcode 3.2.3 (as of 2010-08-01), the way to add a framework is to right-click the “Frameworks” folder on the left side of the main window, and click “Add”, then “Existing Frameworks…”, then pick it out.

    The include line you need is:
    #import <carbon carbon.h=”">

    To pass “self” to the c function, use:
    InstallApplicationEventHandler(&MyHotKeyHandler,1,&eventType,(void *)self,NULL);

    Then, to access “self” (as “mySelf”) in the function, use:
    ClassName * mySelf = (ClassName *) userData;
    (where “ClassName” is the name of self's class. I prefer to use mySelf as a variable name so it isn't confused with the self that class methods use — even though it is the same thing)

    I had no trouble running ASyncKey on 10.6.4 on an Intel Mac Mini.</carbon>

  • Anonymous Too

    This was an incredibly helpful and clear, both the blog and the comments. Thanks!

    Some comments:

    In Xcode 3.2.3 (as of 2010-08-01), the way to add a framework is to right-click the “Frameworks” folder on the left side of the main window, and click “Add”, then “Existing Frameworks…”, then pick it out.

    The include line you need is:
    #import <Carbon/Carbon.h>

    To pass “self” to the c function, use:
    InstallApplicationEventHandler(&MyHotKeyHandler,1,&eventType,(void *)self,NULL);

    Then, to access “self” (as “mySelf”) in the function, use:
    ClassName * mySelf = (ClassName *) userData;
    (where “ClassName” is the name of self's class. I prefer to use mySelf as a variable name so it isn't confused with the self that class methods use — even though it is the same thing)

    I had no trouble running ASyncKey on 10.6.4 on an Intel Mac Mini.

  • Anonymous Too

    The Keyboard Reference Numbers are listed in Events.h, which in the HIToolbox framework.

    To find it, you can do a filename search of /System/Library.

    On my 10.6.4 system, the file is at
    /System/Library/Frameworks/Carbon.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/HIToolbox.framework/Versions/A/Headers/Events.h

  • Anonymous Too

    The Keyboard Reference Numbers are listed in Events.h, which in the HIToolbox framework.

    To find it, you can do a filename search of /System/Library.

    On my 10.6.4 system, the file is at
    /System/Library/Frameworks/Carbon.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/HIToolbox.framework/Versions/A/Headers/Events.h

  • Foxmoy

    AsyncKeys link above is dead – Could someone post a copy of 1.7b5?

    Thank you.

  • Foxmoy

    AsyncKeys link above is dead – Could someone post a copy of 1.7b5?

    Thank you.

  • dbachrach

    The article references a hosted copy I'm storing on my server. I just tested and that works. Does that not work for you?

  • dbachrach

    The article references a hosted copy I'm storing on my server. I just tested and that works. Does that not work for you?

  • Brett

    I'm a beginner and so many times have I added and removed this code from my project, and was left scratching my head. Well I finally figured it out for 10.6.6-Xcode:3.2.5!

    Anonymous Too was helpful, but it took me a while to discipher what he/she was saying.

    Here are my easy step by step for the above code… Hope it helps!

    Step 1:
    Right-click the “Frameworks” folder on the left side of the main window, and click “Add”, then “Existing Frameworks…”, then pick out Carbon.framework.

    Step 2:
    Add to the top of your header file(the .h file) the following:
    #import <carbon carbon.h=”">

    Step 3:
    Add your hot key handler to your header file(the .h file) by adding the following:
    OSStatus MyHotKeyHandler(EventHandlerCallRef nextHandler,EventRef theEvent, void *userData);

    Step 4:
    In your awakeFromNib function of your methods(the .m file) register and create you hot keys by adding the following:
    //Register the Hotkeys
    EventHotKeyRef gMyHotKeyRef;
    EventHotKeyID gMyHotKeyID;
    EventTypeSpec eventType;
    eventType.eventClass=kEventClassKeyboard;
    eventType.eventKind=kEventHotKeyPressed;
    InstallApplicationEventHandler(&MyHotKeyHandler,1,&eventType,NULL,NULL);

    // Create Hotkey 1, command+option+space
    gMyHotKeyID.signature='htk1';
    gMyHotKeyID.id=1;
    RegisterEventHotKey(49, cmdKey+optionKey, gMyHotKeyID, GetApplicationEventTarget(), 0, &gMyHotKeyRef);

    // Create Hotkey 2, command+option+right arrow
    gMyHotKeyID.signature='htk2';
    gMyHotKeyID.id=2;
    RegisterEventHotKey(124, cmdKey+optionKey, gMyHotKeyID, GetApplicationEventTarget(), 0, &gMyHotKeyRef);

    Step 5:
    Add your complete hot key handler function to your methods file(the .m file) by adding the following:
    OSStatus MyHotKeyHandler(EventHandlerCallRef nextHandler,EventRef theEvent, void *userData)
    {
    EventHotKeyID hkCom;
    GetEventParameter(theEvent,kEventParamDirectObject,typeEventHotKeyID,NULL, sizeof(hkCom),NULL,&hkCom);
    int l = hkCom.id;

    switch (l) {
    case 1: //do something
    NSLog (@”HOTKEY 1 PRESSED”);
    break;
    case 2: //do something
    NSLog (@”HOTKEY 2 PRESSED”);
    break;
    }
    return noErr;
    }

    Hope this helps everyone out!

    Cheers,
    Brett</carbon>

  • Brett

    The following code keeps getting messed up:
    #import <carbon carbon.h=”">
    It should actually appear:
    #import <carbon carbon.h=”" slashsymbol=”"></carbon></carbon>

  • Brett

    Well that wasn't helpful all…

  • Billy

    Is there a way to basically trigger a hot key from a click? Such as clicking a button and the eject key being pressed?

  • http://profiles.google.com/boutcher Jim Boutcher

    This doesn't seem to capture events while in NSEventTrackingRunLoopMode (for instance, when displaying a menu from a NSStatusItem)

  • Soorya

    Thank you very much. This helped a lot. Thank you

  • seiferttristan

    Just a quick question – is it possible to 'un-register' for a hotkey, such as when the hotkey gets changed by the user and I need to update it to the new one?

  • franmendex

    p { margin-bottom: 0.08in; }

    Great post.From the time I have started reading the articles you have been posting, I have become very keen in learning more and more. Now I can proudly say that I know little and that too thanks to you

     

  • Daniel Klein

    Hi!

    I´ve got an AppDelegate.m where the global hotkey is set. In my PreferencesController.m i´ve got a method, that should change the set global hotkey.

    My problem: I have to use UnregisterEventHotKey in my PreferencesController.m because if i wouldn´t unregister the hotkey, the new hotkey will be registered, but the old hotkey still exists, too. How can i get the correct EventHotKeyRef in my PreferencesController.m to unregister the old hotkey?

    Do you have any ideas? Someone who has the same struct as i have?

    Kind Regard,

    Daniel.

  • http://www.facebook.com/kim.syversen Kim Syversen

    Thanks Brett. This really helped me. It was not easy to find out how to start, but this give me ideas!

  • http://techforumnetwork.com/techqns/cocoa-nsstatusbar-global-hotkey/ Cocoa NSStatusBar Global HotKey – Tech Forum Network

    [...] of the hotkey tutorials I found was on http://dbachrach.com/blog/2005/11/program-global-hotkeys-in-cocoa-easily/ for anyone [...]

  • http://askprogramming.com/34443/cocoa-nsstatusbar-global-hotkey.html Cocoa NSStatusBar Global HotKey | Ask Programming & Technology

    [...] of the hotkey tutorials I found was on http://dbachrach.com/blog/2005/11/program-global-hotkeys-in-cocoa-easily/ for anyone [...]

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